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Nobel Prize in Physics 2022
- Awarded on: 4th October 2022
- Awarded by: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden
- Awarded to:
- Alain Aspect (Université Paris-Saclay and École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France)
- John F. Clauser (J.F. Clauser & Assoc., Walnut Creek, CA, USA)
- Anton Zeilinger (University of Vienna, Austria)
- Awarded for: Experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities, and pioneering quantum information science.
What is Quantum entanglement?
- When two or more particles link up in a certain way, they share a common, unified quantum state.
- Quantum entanglement was first elucidated by Erwin Schrödinger in 1935, leading to his well-known cat paradox.
What is Bell Inequality?
- In the 1960s, John Stewart Bell developed the mathematical inequality – Bell Inequality which states that if there are hidden variables, the correlation between the results of a large number of measurements will never exceed a certain value.
- All theories with hidden variables show a correlation between the results that must be lower than, or at most equal to, a specific value. This is called Bell’s inequality.