Nobel Prize in Physics 2022

  • Awarded on: 4th October 2022
  • Awarded by: The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden
  • Awarded to:
    • Alain Aspect (Université Paris-Saclay and École Polytechnique, Palaiseau, France)
    • John F. Clauser (J.F. Clauser & Assoc., Walnut Creek, CA, USA)
    • Anton Zeilinger (University of Vienna, Austria)
  • Awarded for: Experiments with entangled photons, establishing the violation of Bell inequalities, and pioneering quantum information science.

What is Quantum entanglement?

  • When two or more particles link up in a certain way, they share a common, unified quantum state.
  • Quantum entanglement was first elucidated by Erwin Schrödinger in 1935, leading to his well-known cat paradox.

What is Bell Inequality?

  • In the 1960s, John Stewart Bell developed the mathematical inequality – Bell Inequality which states that if there are hidden variables, the correlation between the results of a large number of measurements will never exceed a certain value.
  • All theories with hidden variables show a correlation between the results that must be lower than, or at most equal to, a specific value. This is called Bell’s inequality.