Application of Science & Technology in Social & Economic Development
In modern times, without science and technology noting seems possible. The development word seems incomplete without S&T. Here, we are discussing important role of S&T in socio-economic development.
Entrepreneurship & Employment
- Self-employment opportunities through S&T
- S&T entrepreneurship development scheme in several backward districts.
- Government set up technology park for women in several states
- Though, with advent of technology use of manpower in factories is decreasing.
- Non-traditional source of employment generation like aquaculture, horitculture, village industries, powerloom etc.
- Low cost technology at farm, modern irrigation schemes
- Better fertilizers, seeds and bio-pesticides
- Training of agricultural labour
- Appropriate use of technology in sectors like horticulture and sericulture
- Agro-climate mapping and rain forecast
- Preservation and storage of agri-products
- Efficiency in transport, marketing and price discovery e.g. e-chopal by ITC
Ecosystem and Better living
- Low cost house and sanitation
- water management and watershed development
- tech for eco-restoration and sustainable use of resources.
- Rural healthcare – universal immunisation, vaccination, low cost treatment and therapies
- Personalised medicine
Resource Mapping and Mobilisation
- National Resource Data Management System has been developed for collection, dissemination and utilisation of data on natural resources.
- Data collection enabled by S&T help in better planning of resources
- Conservation of local resources and effective management
- Department of Space – remote sensing to disaster management, metefology to broadcasting, satellite data for planning
- Department of Atomic Energy – Power Generation and various nuclear application
- Department of Biotechnology – high yielding crops, healthcare, bio-agri, pollution management etc.
Thus, S&T played important role in socio-economic development of the country.
Indigenisation of Technology
- The need of indigenisation of technology was felt in 1983 at Indian Science Congress.
- Technology Develooment Board was formed in 1996 to accelerate development of indigenous technology.
- Formulated own nuclear programme and cultivated self-reliance in reactor technology as well as in associated fuel cycle.
- Nuclear power generation and warheads
- Nuclear waste management
- Department of Spance and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
- Development in Satellite Programme – Remote sensing and communication satellites
- Development in Launch vehicle Programme – PSLV & GSLV
- Mission to Moon and Mars – Chandrayaan & Mangalayaan
- Initial success in Space capsule recovery experiments for manned mission.
- Development of ballistic, anti-ballistic and cruise missiles
- Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) – Prithvi, Agni, Trishul, Akash, Nag
- Brahmos – Supersonic Cruise Missile, jointly developed by Indian and Russia
- Developments at DRDO
- Developments in healthcare, agriculture, industries and environment
- Golden Rice for balanced diet
- GM crops like BT-Brinjal, Cotton etc.
- Contribution of CDCRI
- Department of Electronics & Information Technology (DEITY) & Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) was formed for e-development.
- C-DAC established National Supercomputing Facility in Pune with Param 10000
- Super Computer SAGA 220 developed by ISRO with speed of 220 TFlops.
- E-governance and ICT for digital divide.
The Way Ahead
- Carefully crafted indigenisation policy with more scope of R&D
- Effective transfer of technology
Transfer of Technology
- R&D needs to be given precedence with technology transfer preferences in selective disciplines
- Acquisition process needs to be speeded up through collegiate decision making
- Establishing technology transfer paradigms and policy directive to Defence PSUs.
- Military Industrial Commission (MIC) needs to be empowered to negotiate with foreign governments for effective transfer of technology