Application of Science & Technology & Need of Indigenisation

Application of Science & Technology in Social & Economic Development

In modern times, without science and technology noting seems possible. The development word seems incomplete without S&T. Here, we are discussing important role of S&T in socio-economic development.

Entrepreneurship & Employment

  • Self-employment opportunities through S&T
  • S&T entrepreneurship development scheme in several backward districts.
  • Government set up technology park for women in several states
  • Though, with advent of technology use of manpower in factories is decreasing.
  • Non-traditional source of employment generation like aquaculture, horitculture, village industries, powerloom etc.


  • Low cost technology at farm, modern irrigation schemes
  • Better fertilizers, seeds and bio-pesticides
  • Training of agricultural labour
  • Appropriate use of technology in sectors like horticulture and sericulture
  • Agro-climate mapping and rain forecast
  • Preservation and storage of agri-products
  • Efficiency in transport, marketing and price discovery e.g. e-chopal by ITC

Ecosystem and Better living

  1. Low cost house and sanitation
  2. water management and watershed development
  3. tech for eco-restoration and sustainable use of resources.


  • e-medicine
  • Rural healthcare – universal immunisation, vaccination, low cost treatment and therapies
  • Personalised medicine

Resource Mapping and Mobilisation

  • National Resource Data Management System has been developed for collection, dissemination and utilisation of data on natural resources.
  • Data collection enabled by S&T help in better planning of resources
  • Conservation of local resources and effective management

Other Applications

  • Department of Space – remote sensing to disaster management, metefology to broadcasting, satellite data for planning
  • Department of Atomic Energy – Power Generation and various nuclear application
  • Department of Biotechnology – high yielding crops, healthcare, bio-agri, pollution management etc.

Thus, S&T played important role in socio-economic development of the country.

Indigenisation of Technology

  • The need of indigenisation of technology was felt in 1983 at Indian Science Congress.
  • Technology Develooment Board was formed in 1996 to accelerate development of indigenous technology.

Nuclear Technology

  • Formulated own nuclear programme and cultivated self-reliance in reactor technology as well as in associated fuel cycle.
  • Nuclear power generation and warheads
  • Nuclear waste management

Space Technology

  • Department of Spance and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO)
  • Development in Satellite Programme – Remote sensing and communication satellites
  • Development in Launch vehicle Programme – PSLV & GSLV
  • Mission to Moon and Mars – Chandrayaan & Mangalayaan
  • Initial success in Space capsule recovery experiments for manned mission.

Defense Technology

  • Development of ballistic, anti-ballistic and cruise missiles
  • Integrated Guided Missile Development Program (IGMDP) – Prithvi, Agni, Trishul, Akash, Nag
  • Brahmos – Supersonic Cruise Missile, jointly developed by Indian and Russia
  • Developments at DRDO


  • Developments in healthcare, agriculture, industries and environment
  • Golden Rice for balanced diet
  • GM crops like BT-Brinjal, Cotton etc.
  • Contribution of CDCRI

Information Technology

  • Department of Electronics & Information Technology (DEITY) & Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) was formed for e-development.
  • C-DAC established National Supercomputing Facility in Pune with Param 10000
  • Super Computer SAGA 220 developed by ISRO with speed of 220 TFlops.
  • E-governance and ICT for digital divide.

The Way Ahead

  • Carefully crafted indigenisation policy with more scope of R&D
  • Effective transfer of technology

Transfer of Technology

  • R&D needs to be given precedence with technology transfer preferences in selective disciplines
  • Acquisition process needs to be speeded up through collegiate decision making
  • Establishing technology transfer paradigms and policy directive to Defence PSUs.
  • Military Industrial Commission (MIC) needs to be empowered to negotiate with foreign governments for effective transfer of technology