The English Revolution began in the 17th century with the conflict of king and parliament. Let’s first discuss little bit of history to understand origin of tension.
History of England
- William, the Conqueror established a strong monarchy in England in the 11th
- King Henry I established a council of chief nobles and church dignitaries in 11th
- By 13th century, this council had come to be called Parliament.
- In 1215, King John accepted a charter of demands made by barons to safeguard their interest in form of Magna Carta. It was to protect merchants from arbitrary taxation.
- Civil war in 13th century led to defeat of king but still parliament was not representative.
- Kings with support of merchants controlled Parliament.
Developments of 17th Century & Glorious Revolution
- Civil war of 1640s: Charles I when became unsuccessful in getting Parliament consensus for taxation to get money for the war with Scotland, started to mobilise support against Parliament. Late Charles I captured and executed. Parliament established as republic in 1649.
- Republic lasted only for 11 years and monarchy was restored. But tussle between king and Parliament continued.
- In 1688, group of parliamentarian invited William of Orange (Ruler of Holland) to become king. This event is known as Glorious Revolution.
- Bill of Rights enacted in 1689.
- With the Act of Settlement (1701) Parliament chose the successors of king and thus affirmed the principle that monarchy is dependent upon Parliament.
- What were the main ideas behind the English Revolution?