Community-based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM)
- Community-based Disaster Risk Management (CBDRM) is a process in which at-risk communities are actively engaged in the identification, analysis, treatment, monitoring and evaluation of disaster risks in order to reduce their vulnerabilities and enhance their capacities (ADPC 2003).
- This means that people are at the heart of decision-making and implementation of disaster risk management activities.
- The involvement of most vulnerable social groups is considered as paramount in this process, while the support of the least vulnerable groups is necessary for successful implementation.
- CBDRM approach covers prevention and mitigation, preparedness, emergency response and recovery.
Need for community involvement
- For sustainability in disaster management operations, involvement of community is essential as external agencies like NGOs and government participate before and after disaster and it would be difficult to reduce the vulnerability withour sustainable efforts.
- If the community were not well prepared, control over the disaster event would be usually lost during its occurrence.
- If each individual in the community is familiar with ways of coping and precautionary measures, then the disruption by a disaster can be reduced.
- Traditional knowledge of communities and villages are often vitally important in coping with crisis.
Disaster management at local level
It has six sequential stages-
- Resource Mapping focuses on what communities have to offer by identifying assets and resources that can be used for building a system.
- It is, generally, a methodology used to link community resources with an agreed upon vision, organizational goals, strategies, or expected outcomes.
Important aspects of resource mapping
- First, mapping strategies focus on what is already present in the community. The idea is to build on the strengths within a community.
- Second, mapping is relationship-driven. Key to mapping efforts is the development of partnerships–a group of equals with a common interest working together over a sustained period of time to accomplish common goals.
- Third, mapping embraces the notion that to realize vision and meet goals, a community may have to work across programmatic and geographic boundaries.
Role in Disaster Management
- Unless there is a complete inventory of resource organizations, plus clear allocation of roles and responsibilities to those organizations, gaps or overlaps in preparedness arrangements are likely to exist.
Relief & Rehabilitation
Role of Local bodies and community
- Local government agencies.
- Local authorities with capicity building can play important role in relief and rehabilitation but because of lack of infrastructure and resources, they cannot play their role.
- At district level, collector oversees all the operations related to relief and rehabilitation and work as per the guidelines provided by state and union government.
- District collector can also call armed forces if need arises.
Role of NGOs, donor agencies etc.
- Provide support to local communities
- With their flexible structure, they generally reach to venue faster than government agencies.
- Maintain pressure on government to take necessary action.
Role of State Goverment
- Basic responsibility related to rehabilitation lies with the state.
- Crisis Management Committee headed by Chief Secretary review, plan, coordinate and regulate all the operations in the state
Role of Union Goverment
- Union Government plays key supportive role with all its resources and functionaries.
- The cabinet secretary heads National Crisis Management Committee oversees all the operations.
- Central Relief Commissioner in Min. of Home Affairs is chairman of Crisis Management Group reviews annual contingency plans and coordinate activities with state and union governments.
Preventive and Administrative Measures
- Government of India has made preventive and administrative measures an important part of development process (10th FYP)
- Prevention, mitigation and preparedness is always better than response.
- Its strategy include both structural and non-structural features. Structural measures include physical constructions while non-structural measures are policies, knowledge creation, capacity building etc.
- National Disaster Mitigation Fund
- National Earthquake Risk Mitigation Project
- National Building Code
- Building Material and Technology Promotion Council
- Ministry of Panchyati Raj: Backward Region Grant Fund for meeting critical infrastructural gaps.
- National Cyclone Risk Mitigation Project – Community mobilisation, training, capacity building, knowledge creation and technical assistance.
- Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project.
- National Landslide Risk Mitigation Project
- Roads, Railways and civil aviation saftely measures
- Drought Prone Area Programme, Desert Development Programme
- Relief employment
- For Tsunami – Shoreline Tree Cover
Nodal Agencies for Disaster Management in India
|Indian Meteorological Department
|Indian National Centre for Oceanic Information Services
|Central Water Commission
|Geological Survey of India
|Snow and Acalanches Study Establishment
|Heat & Cold Waves
|Indian Meteorological Department
- Refer to this pdf for safe construction.
Alternative Communication & Surviving Skills
During an emergency or disaster, several communication system failed, that is why we need some alternative ways to communicate during disaster. They should be easy to use, affordable and should be available during the disaster.
There are several alternative communication methods, includes-
- Ham radio – not dependent on electricity but rather on batteries.
- Social networking sites – if internet is available, can be a great help.
- Emergency alert systems – works through digital, satellite and cable television providers to communicate disaster warnings.
Click wiki for more information.