Q: How far do you agree that the behaviour of the Indian monsoon has been changing due to humanizing landscapes? Discuss.
Humanizing the landscape can be defined as changing the natural landscape architecture as per requirement of human beings like Urbanization or Industrialization. All these make disturbances in hydrological cycle of atmosphere either reducing or increasing the rate of evaporation and ultimately cause to change the pattern of Indian Monsoon. Let’s take some examples of humanizing the landscape.
a) Devastation of Wetlands: A wetland is a land area that is saturated with water either permanently or seasonally. Wetlands play a number of roles in the environment, principally water purification, flood control, carbon sink and shoreline stability. Devastation of wetlands in urban areas such as lake or ponds is one of major reason of irregular rain pattern in big cities like Chennai or Srinagar.
b) Deforestation: Large scale deforestation for the purpose of Urbanization and Industrialization is the cause of increase in Carbon Dioxide (CO2) or GHG in the environment (as per estimate, 1/5th of global GHG emissions are result of deforestation and forest degradation).
c) Concrete Use: Largely use of concrete in urban areas is causes poor recharging of groundwater and change the hydrological cycle of environment which ultimately disturbs the Monsoon system of India.
d) Agriculture: Large scale use of chemicals and bore well irrigation in agriculture are other examples of humanizing the landscape.
e) Creation of large dams in hilly areas which have changed the ecological flow of rivers is also an example of humanizing the landscape.
However humanizing the landscape is one of major reason for changing the behavior of Indian Monsoon but also affected by other reasons such as Pollution due to vehicular and industrial emissions. This leads to climate change which change the behaviour of Indian Monsoon.