UPSC AIR 1 Tina Dabi Answer Writing

Q 1

Even though women may have equal skills, qualifications and commitment as men, they face much more difficulty in rising up the leadership hierarchy. Discuss the reasons for the same. Also, explain the importance of having gender parity in positions of leadership.

पुरूषों के समान कुशलता, योग्यता और प्रतिवद्धता जैसे गुणों से युक्त होने के बावजूद भी महिलाओं को नेतृत्व श्रृंखला मे उच्च सोपानों तक पहुँचने के लिए अपेक्षाकृत अधिक कठिनाई का सामना करना पड़ता है। समस्या की पृष्ठभूमि में निहित कारणों पर चर्चा कीजिये | इसके साथ ही नेतृत्व के विविध स्तरों पर लैंगिक समानता के महत्व का उल्लेख कीजिए।

Answer

Women often face more difficulty than men in moving up the leadership hierarchy because of the deep rooted patriarchal biasedness that prevails in the country.

Indian society due to its patriarchal mindset views women as secondary to men. This disclinimation and subordination is justified by biological differences. However, Feminists argue that while ‘sex’ is a biological fact, sgender” is a social and cultural fact. Thus, discrimination on the basis of gender is flawed that there is no real biological difference which makes women inferior to men in intellect and capability. As simon de Beauvoir said, “One is not born  a woman, one is made a woman”

We require more and more wornen in leadership positions because:

  1. Wormen provide a unique perspective and worldview. Women bring in CARE ETHICS in work culture i.e., emphasis on values of compassion, tolerance and empathy, which are extremely important to tackle contemporary problem.
  2. Women represent 50% of the population, and thus it is only logical to even them being in charge of taking decisions for the welfare of society and ensure that women concerns are not neglected.
  3. Cut more and more women in powers would break the “glass ceiling”. It will attack the patriarchal mindset and bring about attitudinal changes to treat women as equal to men.

Q 2

All correct decisions are honest and all incorrect decisions are dishonest. Do you agree? How should the correctness and incorrectness of a decision be decided?

सभी सही निर्णय ईमानदारी भरे होते हैं ओर सभी गलत निर्णय बेईमानी भरे होते हैं। क्या आप सहमत हैं? किसी निर्णय के सही होने और गलत होने का निर्धारण किस प्रकार किया जाना चाहिए।

Answer:

No, all correct decisions are not always honest and not all incorrect decisions are dishonest. For instance, Whistleblowing against organizational rules however it exposes bad for unethical practices for greater public good. Therefore, there may be actions, decisions incorrect from a legal point of view, but may be ethical and honest in terms for the greater public good. Similarly, section 377  criminalizes homosexuality, this decisions taken in accordance with this law. permissible but not neccessarily morally defensible.

To decide the correctness of incorrectness of a decision, we the best approach is the Gandhian way. A correct decision should not never compromise the means for the band’s For instance, Gandhiji said, “we cannot expect a roses  by sowing the seeds of a babool trees.” Thus, any ‘correct’ action has to be based on the purity of means. No matter how noble the ends, ends can never justify the means.

Q 3

Should birth control be a voluntary exercise or a government policy in a country? In this regard, examine the ethical dimensions of having a One Child Policy in India.
किसी राष्ट्र में जन्म पर नियंत्रण, स्वैच्छिक प्रयास के माध्यम से होना चाहिए या सरकारी नीति के माध्यम से होना चाहिए? इस संबंध में, भारत में एक बच्चे की नीति के नैतिक आयामों का परीक्षण कीजिए।

Birth control should be both a voluntary exercise as well as a governmental policy as long as it is not coercive but only prescriptive.

While having birth country of as a voluntary exercise will give the maximum freedom to citizens, the citizens might become lackadaisical in their approach and not take any serious efforts to achieve the objectives.  A Government Policy of birth control has to ensure that it doesn’t involve coercive measures like forced sterilization. Such a policy may be counter productive.
e resentment among the people and if not carried out properly may adversely impact their health.

Thus, if India goes for a ‘one child policy’, many ethical concerns may need to be taken into consideration:

  1. It cannot be coercive so that people  retain the freedom of choice.
  2. India, which has age old tradition of having large families might find it difficult to shift to a policy of just having one child. It might hurt cultural sensibilities of the people, so a gradual approach is recommended along with mass awareness programmes on its benefits.
  3. India, being a patriarchal society incidents of might experience rise in female foeticide if only one child per family is allowed. This will have dangerous repercussion on the sex ratio of the country which has preference for the male “child.

Q 4

An organisation consists of a variety of individuals with varying values and degrees of motivation. What challenges do leaders face when forging a harmonious work culture in such an organisation? How can leaders engender a sense of ir clusion in face of such diversity?

एक संगठन का निर्माण अलग-अलग मूल्यों और अलग-अलग अभिप्रेरणा स्तर वाले विविध प्रकार के व्यक्तियों से होता है। इस प्रकार के संगठन में सामंजस्यपूर्ण कार्य-संस्कृति के विकास के मार्ग में नेतृत्व के द्वारा किन चुनौतियों का सामना किया जाता है? इस प्रकार की विविधतापूर्ण स्थिति में नेतृत्व के द्वारा कार्य करने वाले व्यक्तियों में समावेशिता की अनुभूति किस प्रकार समाविष्ट की जा सकती है?

In the face of diversity, team work becomes difficult if leaders are unable to create intra-group harmony among individuals of’. different religions, castes and culture The leaders in absence of harmonious work culture will face problems of poor performance, lack of progress in work, intra-group conflicts, low productivity, ineffective intra-group communication and ultimately poor work satisfaction.

Leaders can promote inclusiveness in face of such diversity by :

  1. Leaders should use their EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE SKILLS to promote better communication within the organization. This can be done by conducting trust-building exercises among team member and through techniques improving communication skills but verbal and non verbal.
  2. The leader should promote holding informal meeting from time to time for workers to socialize and develop inter personal relationships. Elton Mayo in his Hawthorne studies demonstrated how these relationships were the best factor to promote productivity.
  3. The leader can give financial b. incentives to the workers to other to work cooperate with each better as a team, by and by working as a team, getting to know each other, and thereby reduce relationship barriers.

Q 5

Notwithstanding compassion and morality, it is national interest that ultimately determines a country’s decisions in international relations. Discuss this statement in the context of the current refugee crisis.

दया और नैतिकता जैसे मूल्यों का महत्वपूर्ण स्थान होते हुए भी, अंतर्राष्ट्रीय संबंधों के परिप्रेक्ष्य में अंततः राष्ट्र के निर्णयों के राष्ट्रिय हितों के आधार पर ही निर्धारित किया जाता है। वर्तमान शरणार्थी संकट के संदर्भ में इस कथन पर चर्चा करें।

Answer

In international relations often national aspirations prevail over international interest, often at the expense of international peace and harmony. However, with increasing areas of global cooperation – economic environment and security — it cannot be said that states are only interested in pursuing their own concerns. Increasingly we find global cooperation where nations are working for the betterment of mankind as a whole.

While some countries have sealed their borders to the ensuing segu- refugee crisis, there are a greater number of nations welcoming these refugees from trouble stricken West Asia with open arms. The European Union is considering better organized and effective refugee policy to prevent any humanitarian crisis.

Thus, we can observe the evolution of global ethical values in International Relations Though national interest still remains important, we do find nations rising above marrow national interest and embracing highest ethical values of morality compassion”, “empathy” on a global scale.

Q 6

What are the ethical issues involved in climate change negotiations? Suggest some strategies to address the divergence in ethical positions of different nations.

जलवायु परिवर्तन पर होने वाली वार्ताओं में समाहित नैतिक मुद्दे क्या हैं? विभिन्न राष्ट्रों के नैतिक मुद्दों से संबंधित दृष्टिकोण में जो भिन्नता है, उसके का समाधान के लिए अपनाई जा सकने वाली रणनीतियों का नुझाव दीजिये।

Answer

The ethical issues involved in climate change negotiations are as follows:

HISTORICAL RESPONSIBILITY

Developed and industrialized nations want that developing countries
should share the burden of reducing carbon emissions. However, such a position disregards the historical MORAL RESPONSIBILITY these nations have towards the developing countries. Since the carbon estrissions are due to industrialization of the developed countries over the past 200 years, it is unfair that these nation’s shift the burden to developing countries and prevent the developing countries from pursuing their own development.

COMMON BUT DIFFRENTIATED RESPONSIBILITY

The developed nations have to recognize that though the responsibility of reducing carbon emissions falls on all, greater responsibility lies on the developed nations than developing nations.

Strategies to redress this ethical dilemma :

  1. The developed nations have to understand and imbibe the values of working for the greater good. They have to rise above petty national interests.
  2. The developing nations to supplement the efforts of the developed nations
    should be given financial aid and technology transfers from the developed nations, to adopt sustainable development approaches.

Q 7

The landmark judgment by the Supreme Court of India recogn zed the transgender as a third sex. What attitudes do you notice towards the transgender people in India? Discuss some steps to facilitate a dignified life for the transgender people.

भारत के सर्वोच्च न्यायालय द्वारा दिए गए ऐतिहासिक निर्णय से ट्रांसजेंडर्स को तृतीय लिंग के रूप में मान्यता दी गई है। आप भारतीय परिस्थितयों में ट्रांसजेंडर्स समुदाय के लोगों के प्रति किन अभिवृत्तियों की अनुभूति करते हैं। ट्रांसजेंडर्स के लिए गरिमापूर्ण जीवन निर्माण के दिशा में उठाए जा सकने वाले क़दमों के संबंध में चर्चा कीजिए।

Answer

Despite various campaigns and even a recent supreme court ruling in parous of transgenders, the dominant attitude among the Indian society towards transgenders continues to be negative. It can be considered akin to “untouchability The transgender people are discriminated against in all walks of life. They are denied education; employment, recognition and respect by society and are rendered destitute.

Steps to facilitate a dignified life for transgenders:

  1. Set up employment exchanges exclusively for catering employment needs of the “transgenders.
  2. Reserving certain percentage of seats in education and government employment for transgenders (affirmative action).
  3. Offer counselling and ment emotional support to transgender victims of trauma or aggression.
  4. Massive public awareness programs emphasizing on the equality of transgenders, to change societal attitudes towards them.
  5. Bring forth a proper legislation protecting them against atrocities.

Q 8

What key characteristics of a person conveying a message make it more persuasive? When celebrities endorse a product, they do so knowing that their endorsement will persuade people to buy it. What duty do they have towards the consumers?

संदेश देने वाले व्यक्ति की कौन-सी महत्वपूर्ण विशेषताएँ संदेश को और अधिक आग्रहपूर्ण बनाती हैं? जब ख्याति प्राप्त व्यक्ति किसी उत्पाद का विज्ञापन करते हैं, तो वे ऐसा यह जानते हुए करते हैं कि उनके द्वारा किसी वस्तु का किया गया विज्ञापन, लोगों को वह वस्तु खरीदने हेतु प्रेरित करेगा। इस सन्दर्भ में उपभोक्ताओं के प्रति उनके क्या दायित्व हैं?

Characteristics of the persuader:

  • Credibility

Persuasion is effective only when the source how is considered credible. Credibility is established by expertness and the tworthiness
trustworthiness.

  • Power

Persuasion is effective if the persuader is in some position of power of authority over the target group being pursuded.

  • Attractiveness

Persuasion is effective when the persuader seenis attractive with
respect to :

-Value compatibility

-Attitudnal’ similarity

-Interest overlap

-Familiartly

Since celebrities enjoy power over the masses due to their appeal and attractiveness, it is their duty to ensure that they don’t endorse Unethical practices or bad products, since they would mislead the masses who look up to these celebrities.

Q 9

Why is there a need for performance Management System in an outcome oriented government? Evaluate the feasibility of peer review in context of Indian civil services.

Performance Management system is a critical component of an outcome oriented government te there is no critical appraisal of the performance then there is no way to ensure that output is bringing the desired outcomes.

only an outcome oriented government can lead to good governance, people citizen engagement and improve public service delivery. Without monitoring the performance of officials, desired outcomes cannot be guaranteed.

Peer Review system can be introduced in Indian civil services though with proper guidelines and grievance redressal mechanisms. It will encourage greates peer interaction and bring out a system of checks.

It will improve organizational communication and even give a boost to group harmonious inter personal relations.

Q 10

Discretionary power in the hands of public servants is a necessary evil.

लोक सेवकों के हाथों में विवेकाधीन शक्तियाँ एक आवश्यक बुराई हैं। चर्चा कीजिए।

Discretionary power is sometimes required when  laws, rules and regulations create rigidity in the face changing needs of the time. In such situations, discretionary power enables public servants to  apply innovative and creative solutions to problems.

However, discretionary power can be also be misused by dishonest officials for furthering their private interests.

Thus, while the  discretionary power can be abused, the dynamic nature of administration requires that some amount of discretionary power has to be given to public officials. Thus, it is called of necessary evil.”.

To prevent misuse of discretionary power, there has to be an elaborate operational framework. Public officials should be made to follow on a code of conduct and a code of ethics so that the limitations of discretionary power can be eliminated and at the same time, public officials get the flexibility to take decisions according to changing needs of the time.

Q 11

It is said that child labor cannot be ethical at all. Do you agree? Discuss with respect to the proposed amendments to the Child Labour Act.

यह कहा जाता है कि बाल-श्रम किसी भी परिस्थिति में नैतिक नहीं हो सकता। क्या आप सहमत हैं? बाल-श्रम अधिनियम में प्रस्तावित संशोधनों के संदर्भ में चर्चा कीजिए।

Answer

Yes, child labour is unethical, in all its forms and manifestations and this is because childhood is a time of nurturing and educating the child. If this does not happen then a child cannot develop his mental faculties fully and cannot develop holistically.

However, a distinction needs to be made between child labour and when child help their family members in a family enterprise. Of However, even | assisting the family needs to ensure that it does not affect the child’s study and play hours.

The proposed amendments to the Child Labour Act are in consonance with the above line of thinking. The ban all Rinds of labous – hazardous and non hazardous upto 14 years of age, but allow children to help their families in their family enterprise if does not affect their education.

Q 12

Are emotions an inhibiting factor in effective decision-making? Discuss in the context of public services.

क्या भावनाएं प्रभावपूर्ण निर्णय लेने के मार्ग में बाधक तत्व हैं? लोक सेवाओं के संदर्भ में चर्चा 

Answer

No, emotions are no longer considered an inhibiting factor in effective decision making Traditionally, emotions, we’re considered as interfering in rational judgement and as a sign of weakness. However, now, after the researches of Mayes and salovey and Daniel Goleman, it has been established that emotions enable better performs.

In the context of public services, the performance of an official depends not only on technical proficiency, but how effectively he or she can use emotional intelligence to deal with peers, superiors and public Emotions and emotional quotient lead to trusting relations, motivate creative expressions and enhance self understanding.

In fact, Daniel Golenian asserts that 80% of success at workplace is due to esnational quotient), and 20% due to intelligence quotient. while IQ can get one selected, only emotional quotient can get one promoted.

Q 13

In the following questions, carefully study the cases presented and then answer the questions that follow (in around 250 words):

You are the leader of a 5 member team that has been assigned to carry out
social impact assessment of a project proposed in a Naxal area. Members have been allotted a remote village each to conduct surveys and ascertain views of local people. You are understrict instructions not to disclose the identity of respondents outside the project. While compiling data, you are puzzled by the responses from one of the villages. You accompany the point-person for that village next day for verification. You randomly pick a person from the list of respondents and ask her for clarification of the response she had given earlier. She seems confused and denies any knowledge of the survey being conducted, let alone she being questioned. You try to verify this from other respondents and get similar replies. This raises serious doubts about the integrity and credibility of the survey process. (a) What are the ethica issues involved in the situation? (b) As a team leader accountable for credibility of the survey and working on a hard timeline, what are the possible options before you? List their merits and demerits. (c) Giving reasons, state the course of action you would follow.

20 आप एक पांच सदस्यीय टीम के नेतृत्वकर्ता हैं, जिसे नक्सल क्षेत्र में प्रस्तावित एक परियोजना के सामाजिक प्रभाव आंकलन का कार्य सौंपा गया है। सर्वेक्षण करने और स्थानीय लोगों के दृष्टिकोण का पता लगाने के लिए प्रत्येक सदस्य को एक सुदूरवर्ती गांव आवंटित किया गया है। आपको सख्त निर्देश दिए गए हैं कि उत्तरदाताओं की पहचान को परियोजना से बाहर प्रकट नहीं किया जाए। आंकड़ों को संकलित करते समय, आप एक गाँव से प्राप्त उत्तरों से उलझन में पड़ जाते हैं। आप उस गाँव हेतु नियुक्त व्यक्ति (प्वाइंट पर्सन) के साथ अगले दिन सत्यापन करने जाते हैं। आप उत्तरदाताओं की सूची में से वादृच्छिक रूप से एक व्यक्ति का चयन करते हैं और उससे कहते हैं। कि वह पहले दिए गए अपने उत्तरों का स्पष्टीकरण करे। वह कुछ भ्रमित प्रतीत होती है और न केवल स्वयं से प्रश्न पूछे जाने, वरन् सर्वेक्षण किए जाने के संबंध में जानकारी होने तक की बात भी नकारती है। आप इस तथ्य को अन्य उत्तरदाताओं से सत्यापित करने का प्रयस करते हैं और एक समान उत्तर प्राप्त करते हैं। यह सर्वेक्षण प्रक्रिया की सत्यनिष्ठा और विश्वसनीयता पर गंभीर संदेह पैदा करता है। (a) इस परिस्थिति से सम्बंधित नैतिक मुद्दे क्या हैं? (b) आप इस टीम के नेतृत्वकर्ता के रूप में सर्वेक्षण की विश्वसनीयता हेतु और निश्चित समय सीमा के अंतर्गत कार्य पूर्ण करने हेतु उत्तरदायी हैं | ऐसे में आपके सामने संभावित विकल्प क्या हैं? उन विकल्पों के लाभ और हानियों को सूचीबद्ध कीजिए। (c) इस संबंध में आपके द्वारा की जाने वाली कार्यवाही का उल्लेख करें | इसके साथ ही कारण को भी स्पष्ट करें।

Answer

The ethical issue involved in the case is that of lack of integrity in work. From the responses of the respondents, it is clear that they are fake statements. It may point towards nexus towards the survey officials and the project proponents. Moreover, the project is of a Naxal area and thus sensitive. The case also speaks about the possiblity of a poor social Impact Assessment (SIA) Report which bring a bad name to the team leader as well.

As the team leader is accountable for the survey plus has a pressing timeline to follow, he/she has the following options.

Go ahead with the report without making changes.

Merits:

It will save time and since identity of respondents will not be disclosed, the leader will not be held accountable.

Demerits :

It is morally and ethically wrong move. It will be akin to cheating the government and the public, and hence can be ruled out.

Conduct a fresh survey on your own

Merits:

The reader then can ensure that the report is credible.

Demerits :

Conducting a fresh survey will push the time limits and the leader will fail to submit the report on time.

Appeal to the government to change the team members on account of fudging the survey and report? Also ask the government for an extension due to the unfortunate circumstances .

Merits:

It will enable the leader to conduct a proper survey with assistance and without the fear of credibility of the team members.

Demerits:

It may exceed the time limit.

However, the third option is most feasible since on requesting the government for an extension of deadline after properly making the government aware of the poor credibility of the previous report, the time limit problem will be solved. Moreover, with government replacing the old team members, better credibility of SIA Report can be expected.

Q 14

Gajendra, once a struggling film actor, was accused and later exonerated of
rape charges, which the jury found out to be motivated and fake. Not able to cope up with the situation, he changed profession and moved on. Thirty years later, while his closest friends know about the incident but his coworkers do not. One day, out of curiosity, he searches for his name on the internet, and to his surprise, finds that the third entry that comes up is an old report in a local newspaper about the rape charges he faced. Gajendra is upset; after all these years he would like to be able to disclose the event only to whomever he wants He has heard about the decision of European Court of Justice which allows individuals to submit requests to a search engine to remove certain results from searches on their names, and citing the same, requests the search engine and media outlet to remove the results. Valid arguments can be advanced for making the Right to be Forgotten a fundamental right? What those arguments could be? What limitations, if any, can it be subjected to? Should there be any obligations on the search engines regarding cases which are no longer relevant, as the one mentioned above?

गजेन्द्र एक संघर्षरत फिल्म अभिनेता था। पहले तो उसे अभियुक्त बनाया गया और फिर बाद में उसे बलात्कार के आरोपों से मुक्त कर दिया गया। इन आरोपों को न्यायिक पीठ ने दुर्भावना से अभिप्रेरित और झूठा पाया। इस स्थिति का सामना न कर पाने के कारण उसने अपने पेशे में परिवर्तन करते हुए आगे का जीवन निर्वाह किया। तीस वर्ष पश्चात्, उसके घनिष्ठतम मित्रों को इस घटना के बारे में पत है किन्तु उसके सहकर्मी इस बात को नहीं जानते हैं। एक दिन उत्सुकतावश वह इंटरनेट पर अपने नाम की खोज करता है और आश्चर्यजनक रूप से यह पाता है। दृष्टिगत तीसरी प्रविष्टि एक स्थानीय समाचारपत्र में उसके द्वारा सामना किए गए बलात्कार के आरोपों के बारे में एक पुराने रिपोर्ट की है। गजेन्द्र परेशान है; इतने वर्षों के बाद, वह इस घटना को केवल अपनी पसंद के लोगों के समक्ष प्रकट करना चाहेगा। उसने यूरोपीय न्यायालय के उस निर्णय के बारे में सुना है, जो व्यक्तियों को अपने नाम से क जाने वाली खोज संबंधी कुछ परिणामों को हटाए जाने हेतु सर्च इंजन को निवेदन प्रस्तुत करने की अनुमति प्रदान करता है और उसी का उद्धरण देते हुए, सर्च इंजन और मीडिया आउटलेट को परिणामों को हटाए जाने हेतु निवेदन करता है। क्या “भुला दिए जाने के अधिकार” को मौलिक अधिकार बनाने हेतु वैध तर्क दिए जा सकते हैं? वे तर्क क्या हो सकते हैं? यदि उनकी कोई सीमाएं हैं तो वे सीमाएं क्या होंगी? ऊपर उल्लिखित प्रकरण की भांति अन्य अप्रसंगिक प्रकरणों के संबंध में क्या सर्च इंजनों का कोई दायित्व होना चाहिए?

Answer

Right to Forgotten can be made a fundamental right, but such an initiative hares to be tread on carefully. It should hamper the administration of justice of public welfare.

Merits:

It will be useful for cases like that of Gajendra, where information which is no longer relevant is only bringing public shame.

Demerits :

It might hamper future research on issues if past records, even if false are erased. Moreover, an IT infrastructure needed for this task is missing in India.

If search engines are allowed. to erase such data, it cannot be done on whims and fancies A proper system has to be adopted whereby only on government request should information be removed and not arbitarily.

Q 15

You are the officer in charge of overseeing refugees’ related issues in a multilateral humanitarian organisation. There is an ethnicity based civil war going on in a region and as a result, many people are being displaced. Hitherto, the economically better-off neighbouring countries have accommodated the streams of migrants with financial support from your organisation. The violence in the region has increased recently and the flux of people seeking refuge has grown substantially. With countries sealing their borders, the refugees are left in a vulnerable situation. You are sent to negotiate for humanitarian settlement of refugees with the neighbouring countries, who also happen to be a powerful economic bloc. However, they refuse any more accommodation on the following grounds:

(a) Drainage of resources in face of subdued economic conditions.
(b) Domestic political repercussions.
(c) Rehabilitation will encourage more influx and indirectly fuel the persecutors.
(d) Permanency of settlement in face of better prospects than at home.

What are the counter-arguments that can be cited to convince the countries for an immediate solution? Suggest some long term measures as well that should be followed to address the problem.

आप एक बहुपक्षीय मानवतावादी संगठन में शरणार्थियों से संबंधित मुद्दों के निरीक्षण हेतु प्रभारी अधिकारी हैं। एक क्षेत्र में नस्ल आधारित गृहयुद्ध छिड़ा हुआ है, परिणामस्वरूप अनेक लोग विस्थापित हो रहे हैं। अभी तक, आर्थिक रूप से बेहतर स्थिति वाले पड़ोसी देशों ने आपके संगठन से प्राप्त वित्तीय सहायता से प्रवास करने वाले लोगों के जत्थों को स्थान दिया है। हाल ही में क्षेत्र में हिंसा बढ़ गयी है और शरण चाहने वाले लोगों का प्रवाह अत्यधिक बढ़ गया है। देश अपनी सीमाओं को सील कर रहे हैं, जिससे शरणार्थी सुभेद्य स्थिति में हैं। आपको उन पड़ोसी देशों से शरणार्थियों हेतु मानवतावादी आधार पर रहने की व्यवस्था करने हेतु वार्ता के लिए भेजा गया है। वे पड़ोसी देश आर्थिक रूप से शक्तिशाली गुट हैं। हालांकि वे निम्नलिखित आधारों पर और अधिक शरणार्थियों को स्थान देने से मना कर सकते हैं।

(a) गिरती हुई आर्थिक स्थिति करने के कारण संसाधनों की कमी।
(b) घरेलू राजनैतिक प्रभाव।
(C) पुनर्वास और अधिक अंतर्वाह को प्रोत्साहित करेगा और अप्रत्यक्ष रूप से उत्पीड़कों या अत्याचारियों को उत्तेजित करेगा।
(d) अच्छी संभावनाओं के कारण अपने मूल देश की अपेक्षा यहीं पर स्थायी रूप से बस जाना।

इन विकल्पों के विपक्ष में दिए जाने वाले तर्क कौन से हैं, जिनके माध्यम से राष्ट्रों को तत्काल समाधान के लिए राजी किया जा सकता है। कुछ दीर्घावधिक उपायों का सुझाव भी दीजिए
जिनका समस्या के समाधान के लिए पालन किया जाना चाहिए।

Answer

the counter arguments to each of the grounds of refusal are as follows:

(a)DRAINAGE OF RESOURCES IN FACE OF SUBDUED ECONOMIC CONDITIONS

The nations need to be reminded that for the greater interest of humanity at lange, economic concerns have to be put aside. It is the responsibility of international community in general, and the neighbouring nations in particular, to come to and during a humanitarian crisis.

(b) DOMESTIC POLITICAL REPERCUSSIONS.

While influence of refugees may create certain domestic problems, the neighbourhood regions need to realize that if they do not accomodate the refugees then the resulting humanitarian crisis would create problems for their internal and external security thereby impacting domestic stability.
Moreover, refusal to prove undertake humanitarian measure might even create a negative domestic public opinion against the governments.

(c) REHABILITATION WILL ENCOURAGE MORE INFLUX

While rehabilitation may encourage more influx, non rehabilitation will lead to illegal an immigration, which will come with its own set of problems. It may lead to cross border. human trafficking and even more serious problems.

(d) PERMANENCY OF SETTLEMENTS

While some refugees might settle down permanently, it cannot be said that the majority will since people have strong affinity to their cultural roots. They have a strong sense of belonging to their own land, and thus, they will not over stay their welcome.

Long term measures to address the problems

  • The International community should negotiate a global a convention on Refugees and Refugee settlement under the ta aegis of United Nations such a treaty should be binding so that member nations cannot escape their responsibility later.
  • Steps to be taken to ensure that political stability is maintained in nations have a history of ethnic civil wars. The international community should provide all possible moral and material support for the same.
  • There should be setting up of more humanitarian work related NGOs to tackle such crisis.

Q 16

You are a Divisional Forest Officer (DFO) in an urban district. The forest cover in the district is as low as 11% and it neecs to be increased as per Eovernment guidelines. By ecological and environmental perspective also it is imperative that more trees should be planted. However, you find out that while there is a grant of Rs. 1.5 crore for your civision to plant trees under the Hariyali Scheme, most of this fund is lying unused. Since, it is December and as per government rules all the unused grant should be returned to the government as the financial year closes, it seems you will have to return the money completely. Also, there are strong indications from the ministry that government is mulling over a budgetary cut on Hariyali mission because most of the funds go unused. There is a strong possibility that if you return the money in this fnancial year you wont get it in the next financial year and even if you get, it will be a very insignificant amount. Indicate various options that you think are available in this situation Evaluate these options and choose the most appropriate path to be adopted?

आप एक शहरी जिले में मंडल वन अधिकारी (डी.एफ.ओ.) हैं। जिले में वनाच्छादन 11 प्रतिशत कम है और इसे सरकारी दिशा-निर्देशों के अनुसार बढ़ाया जाना है। पारिस्थितिकीय एवं पर्यावरणीय दृष्टिकोण से भी अधिक संख्या में वृक्षारोपण किया जाना अनिवार्य है। यद्यपि आप यह गते हैं कि आपके मंडल (डिवीजन) में हरियाली योजना के अधीन वृक्षारोपण हेतु 1.5 करोड़ रुपए का अनुदान है, लेकिन इस फंड का अधिकांश भाग अप्रयुक्त है। चूंकि यह दिसंबर का महीना है और सरकारी निययों के अनुसार, समस्त अप्रयुक्त अनुदान सरकार को लौटा दिया जाना चाहिए क्योंकि वित्तीय वर्ष समाप्त हो जाता है। ऐसा प्रतीत होता है कि आपको पूरी राशि लौटानी होगी। साथ ही, मंत्रालय से इस बात के निश्चित संकेत हैं कि सरकार हरियाली योजना के अंतर्गत बजट क्म करने पर विचार कर रही है क्योंकि फंड का अधिकांश भाग अप्रयुक्त रह जाता है। इस बात वे निश्चित संकेत हैं कि यदि आप वित्तीय वर्ष में राशि लौटाते हैं तो अगले वित्तीय वर्ष में यह आपको नहीं मिलेगा और यदि मिल भी जाता है तो वह राशि बहुत कम होगी। स्वंय के अनुसार इस स्थिति में उपलब्ध विभिन्न विकल्पों के संबंध में बताएं। इन विकल्पों का मूल्यांकन करें और अपनाए जा सकने वाले सर्वाधिक उपयुक्त मार्ग का चयन करें।

Answer

In the above situation, the ethical dilemma faced is now to ensure the planting of trees in the district in a legally permissible way before funding cuts are made in the Haryali scheme. The following options are available in the case:

1. Spend all the funds before the financial year ends (March 31st). However while this will ensure some planting of trees, such a skewed. expenditure will more or less be mis-spent due to the time constraints. It might even lead to many loop holes in the implementation of the scheme, and result in corruption at the lower levels of administration.

2. Don’t spend the funds and wait forthe reformed Haryali Policy in the next financial year.

This option while legally permissible, will be lackadaisical in its approach. It is imperative to plant trees in the district not only from the policy point of view, but also from the ecological and environmental perspective since the district has forest cover as low as 11% : Moreover, not taking any action might be ethically now responsive, since the offices is: anticipating a cut in funds in the revamped scheme in the next financial year, which will bring less opportunities to increase forest cover in the district.
3. Use some of the funds properly to kickstart planting of trees in the district, while appeal to the Government to not out funding to the Haryali scheme.

This option appears to be the best course of action. Limited utilization of funds, as the financial year is ending, will be appropriate. There will be liss chances of them being mismanaged or mis utilized, while at the same time planting of trees would have been started in the district and there would be some improvement in the forest cover of the district.

Appealing to the government to reconsider their proposal of reducing funding to the scheme by high lighting the need to increase forest cover, might also work in favour. The government may even Dsanction a special release of funds exclusively for that district de to its low forest cover.

Q 17

You, an anthropologist, have developed cordial relations with a tribal
community which was hitherto isolated from rest of the humanity. Notwithstanding increased interest of researchers and media for the newly discovered tribe, you are the only person from outside whom they trust. They are ardent believers in their goddess and, trusting you, take you to her abode on a holy mountain. To your surprise, you find that the mountain is a (reservoir of Uranium that can be used in your power-starved country’s nuclear power plants. Besides, you are aware that Uranium being radioactive, it is highly risky to go near the mountain. You try to convince the people about harmful effects it can have and the utilitarian value that it possess for the country. However, they are in no mood to argue and politely ask you to leave. You fear that very soon the outside world will find about this and the vulnerable tribe would be displaced from their land.

(a) Evaluate the following courses of action which you can take for their ethical merits and demerits:

i. You would continue to convince the people yourself about the possible consequences and urge them to relocate,
ii. You would call in local and national NGOs for protecting the rights of the people against the State and file a PIL in Supreme Court if the State proceeds with dispossession.
iii. You would yourself tell the government and the scientific community about the reserves and let them proceed in their own way.

(b) Without restricting yourself to the above options, state the course of action that you would take and why?

आप एक नृविज्ञानी हैं और अपने वैसे जनजातीय समुदाय के साथ मधुर संबंध बनाए हैं जो अब तक शेष मानवजति से पृथक था। नई खोजी गई जनजाति में मीडिया और शोधकर्ताओं की बढ़ती रूचि के पश्चात् भी आप अकेले ऐसे बाहरी व्यक्ति हैं जिन पर वे विश्वास करते हैं। वे अपनी देवी के अनन्य उपासक हैं और आप पर विश्वास करते हुए एक दिन वे आपको एक पवित्र पहाड़ पर स्थित उसके वास स्थल पर ले जाते हैं। आप इस बात से आश्चर्यचकित हो जाते हैं कि वह पहाड़ यूरेनियम का भंडार है जिसका उपयोग ऊर्जा की कमी से जूझते आपके देश के नाभकीय ऊर्जा संयंत्रों में किया जा सकता है। साथ ही, आप इस बात से भी अवगत हैं कि यूरेनियम के रोडियोधर्मी होने के कारण पहाड़ के निकट जाना अत्यधिक संकटपूर्ण है। आप लोगों को इसके क्षतिकारक प्रभावों और राष्ट्र के लिए इसकी उपयोगिता के मूल्य के संबंध में समझाने का प्रयास करते हैं। चूंकि वे अभी किसी तर्क-वितर्क की मुद्रा में नहीं हैं और आपसे सविनय चले जाने को कहते हैं। आपको इस बात का भय है कि शीघ्र ही बाह्य जगत इस संबंध में जान जाएगा और सुभद्य जनजातीय लोग अपनी भूमि से विस्थापित हो जाएंगे।

(a) नैतिक औचित्य और अनौचित्य के आधार पर आपके द्वारा उठाए जाने वाले कदम का मूल्यांकन करें:

i.आप लोगों को संभावित परिणामों के संबंध में समझाना जारी रखेंगे और उन्हें पुनस्र्थापित होने को प्रेरित करेंगे।
ii.आप राज्य के विरुद्ध निवासियों के अधिकारों की रक्षा के लिए स्थानीय एवं राष्ट्रीय गैर-सरकारी संगठनों को आमंत्रित करेंगे और यदि राज्य निर्वासन की दिशा में
बढ़ता है तो आप सर्वोच्च न्यायालय में एक जनहित याचिका प्रस्तुत करेंगे।
iii. आप स्वयं सरकार एवं विज्ञान जगत को भंडार के संबंध में बताएंगे तत्पश्चात उन्हें
उनकी इच्छानुसार कार्यवाही के लिए स्वंतत्र छोड़ देंगे।

(b) अपने आपको उपर्युक्त विकल्पों तक सीमित न करते हुए, उन उपायों को बताएं जिन्हें आप
अमल में लाना चाहेगें। ऐसा करने का कारण भी बताएं।

Answer

The above case presents the ethical dilemma of how the tribe can be convinced to stay away from the mountain due to its radioactive radiations while at the same time not hurting her cultural sensibilities. It also contains the dilemma of how to prevent the displacement of the tribe when it comes to light that the region occupied by them is rich in uranium. Sicer a displacement will result in the tribe losing trust in mainstream society and will generate resentment in the tribe:

1.

Merits :

Continue to convince people about the possible consequences is the can work since the tribal people trust the anthropologist. Repeated persuasions might make them think, if they have been facing any negative impact due to the radiations already.

Demerits:

The tribe is unlikely to shed its years old cultural beliefs just for the sake of one person. It might even be counter productive that they become wary of any outsiders, including the anthropologist.

2.

Merits:

Calling in the local and national NGOs for campaigning for rights of the tribe as well as filing a PIL may prove to fighting for tribal rights might create trusting relationships between the tribe and mainstream society. A favourable supreme court verdict may prevent snatching away of their rights. Demerits: However, greater the campaigning, creates will be media attention on the issue. It might work negatively. It may increase the attelupes of other people to take over the tribal land Filing a PIL will result into a long, tedions legal struggle, which may even give an unfavourable verdict.

3

Merits :

Trust is reposed in the governament that it will take the best decision for public interest.

Demerits

This would be running away from one’s moral responsibility. As the anthropologist bearing the responsibility to the government would mean forsaking his responsibility. Moreover, the government has a bad track record with respect to ensuring welfare of tribals : Letting the government have its way without even advocating tribal concerns may adversely affect the tribals.

The state course of action to be taken has to take into account tribal concerns along with larger public interest. The course of action is that the  anthropologist continues to win, the trust of the tribe and gradually beer tells them about the dangers of the mountain. At the same time, the anthropologist should write to the government to explaining the vulnerable position of the tripe. He/she should explain how an immediate smatching away of land would impact their cultural sensibilities, make them mistrust the government and mainstream society and generate hostility and resentment
to first win the trust of the tride, involve them in deciding their relocation and only then go for land acquisition.

Add a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *