Environment and Sustainable Development – Old Year Questions

Basic Questions

1. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and other as the Reason (R).

Assertion (A) : Sustainable development is important for well being of human society.
Reason (R) : Sustainable development is a kind of development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.

Codes :
(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false but (R) is true

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2019]


2. Arrange the following events in chronological order and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
I. Rio Earth Summit
II. Publication of Brundtland Commission Report
III. Enforcement of Montreal Protocol
IV. Publication of ‘The Limit to Growth’ Report

(a) I, IV, III, II
(b) IV, II, III, I
(c) IV, III, II,I
(d) IV, I, III, II

[U.P. P.C.S. (Pre) 2020]


3. The discussion on ‘Sustainable Development’ was started after submitting a report on environment to the United Nations in 1987. That report was:

(a) First Report on Climate Change
(b) Our Common Future
(c) Second Report on Climate Change
(d) Fifth Assessment Report

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2020]


4. Environment refers to:

(a) The natural world of land, water, air, plants and animals that exist around it.
(b) The sum total of conditions which surround human beings at a given point of time.
(c) The interacting system of physical, biological and cultural elements which are interlinked.
(d) All the above

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2006]


5. Which of the following is not related to environmental protection?

(a) Sustainable Development
(b) Poverty Alleviation
(c) Air Conditioning
(d) Use of Paper Bags

[U.P.U.D.A./L.D.A. (Pre) 2013]


6. The Environment (Protection) Act of India was enacted in–

(a) 1981
(b) 1986
(c) 1995
(d) 2000

[U.P.U.D.A./L.D.A. (Pre) 2013]


7. Environment is a composite state of –

(a) Biotic factors
(b) Physiographic factors
(c) Abiotic factors
(d) All of the above.

[53rd to 55th B.P.S.C. (Pre) 2011]


8. Generally, environment can be classified as following categories. Which among the following is NOT a part of such category?

(a) Operational Environment
(b) Physical Environment
(c) Cultural Environment
(d) Biological Environment

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2020]


9. Sustainable development is a matter of intergenerational sensibility in respect of the use of?

(a) Natural resources
(b) Material resources
(c) Industrial resources
(d) Social resources

[U.P.P.C.S.(Pre) 2012]


10. What is blue carbon?

(a) Carbon captured by oceans and coastal ecosystems
(b) Carbon sequestered in forest biomass and agricultural soils
(c) Carbon contained in petroleum and natural gas
(d) Carbon present in atmosphere

[I.A.S (Pre) 2021]


11. ‘Saving energy and other resources for the future without sacrificing people’s comfort in the present’ is the definition of which of the following concepts?

(a) Economic growth
(b) Economic development
(c) Sustainable development
(d) Human development

[U.P. P.C.S. (Pre) 2018]


12. Which of the following Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) will target the water availability for all and its permanent management up to 2030 in India?

(a) SDG – 6
(b) SDG – 7
(c) SDG – 8
(d) SDG – 9

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2019]


13. The Decade of Sustainable Energy for all is the initiative of:

(a) United Nations
(b) India
(c) Germany
(d) World Bank

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2017]


14. Which of the following is a Nodal Institution for implementation of Sustainable Development Goals in India?

(a) Planning Commission
(b) Disinvestment Commission
(c) NITI Aayog
(d) Finance Commission

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2019]


15. World Environment Day is celebrated on:

(a) 21 March
(b) 23 September
(c) 5 June
(d) 25 May

[Jharkhand P.C.S. (Pre) 2013, Uttarakhand Lower (Sub.) (Pre) 2010]


16. The book ‘Silent Spring’ published in 1962 which set the tone for an environmental movement in the world, was written by:

(a) Carolyn Merchant
(b) Karl Marx
(c) Rachel Carson
(d) Rajgopalan

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2020]


17. A country’s natural capital included all of the following except:

(a) Forest
(b) Water
(c) Roads
(d) Minerals

[U.P.P.C.S.(Pre) 2012]


18. The main role of solar radiation is in –

(a) Carbon cycle
(b) Hydrogen cycle
(c) Water cycle
(d) Nitrogen cycle

[U.P. Lower Sub. (Spl.) (Pre) 2004, U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2000]


19. National Environmental Engineering Research Institute is situated at:

(a) Bangaluru
(b) Hyderabad
(c) Nagpur
(d) New Delhi

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2014, U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2012, U.P.P.C.S (Mains) 2011, Uttarakhand P.C.S. (Pre) 2010,U.P.P.C.S (Mains) 2005, U.P. Lower Sub. (Pre) 2004]


20. What is important for Sustainable Development?

(a) Conservation of biological diversity
(b) Prevention and Control of Pollution
(c) Decreasing poverty
(d) All of these.

[U.P. Lower Sub. (Pre) 2004]


23. The ‘Common Carbon Metric’ supported by UNEP, has been developed for

(a) assessing the carbon footprint of building operations around the world
(b) enabling commercial farming entities around the world to enter carbon emission trading
(c) enabling governments to assess the overall carbon footprint caused by their countries
(d) assessing the overall carbon footprint caused by the use of fossil fuels by the world in a unit time

[I.A.S (Pre) 2021]


24. Which one of the following is not the objective of smart city development?

(a) Good governance
(b) Clean green city
(c) Stabilizing quality of life
(d) Smart mobility

[U.P. P.C.S. (Mains) 2017]


25. ‘Earth Summit’ was held at:

(a) Cairo
(b) Rio-de-Janeiro
(c) Durban
(d) Kyoto

[Uttarakhand U.D.A./L.D.A. (Pre) 2003]


26. What was the title of the Rio -20 declaration?

(a) The future we want
(b) The future we seek
(c) The future we have
(d) The future we seek
(e) None of these

[Chhattisgarh P.C.S. (Pre) 2015]


27. The first ‘Earth Summit’ was held at-

(a) Washington
(b) Geneva
(c) Rio-de-Janeiro
(d) Buenos Aires

[M.P.P.C.S. (Pre), 1998]


28. International Conference held in Rio-de-Janeiro was:

(a) United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development
(b) Environment and Pollution Summit
(c) International new Economics
(d) None of these

[M.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 1992]


29. What is the thin layer of gases around the earth called?

(a) Biosphere
(b) Water particle
(c) Atmosphere
(d) Hydrosphere

[44th B.P.S.C. (Pre) 2000]


30. Air is a/an:

(a) Compound
(b) Element
(c) Mixture
(d) Electrolyte

[39th B.P.S.C. (Pre) 1994]


31. Percentage of Nitrogen in dry air –

(a) 21%
(b) 27%
(c) 50%
(d) 78%

[M.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 1990]


32. Which of the following is considered to be the optimum concentration of Carbon-Dioxide for natural balance in atmosphere?

(a) 0.02 percent
(b) 0.03 percent
(c) 0.04 percent
(d) 0.05 percent

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2017]


33. Which one of the following Noble Gases is not present in the air?

(a) Helium
(b) Argon
(c) Radon
(d) Neon

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2005]


34. In the atmosphere, the highest percentage is of:

(a) Oxygen
(b) Carbon dioxide
(c) Nitrogen
(d) Hydrogen

Uttrakhand U.D.A./LDA (Mains) 2007


35. If all the plants and trees vanish from the earth, the gas which will decrease is –

(a) Carbon dioxide
(b) Nitrogen
(c) Water vapour
(d) Oxygen

[R.A.S./R.T.S.(Pre) 2012]


36. Which of the following is not a function of the tree?

(a) Absorption of carbon dioxide
(b) Absorption of noise
(c) Air pollution
(d) Releasing oxygen

[R.A.S./R.T.S. (Pre) 1993]


37. Consider the following :
1. Photosynthesis 2. Respiration
3. Decay of organic matter 4. Volcanic action
Which of the above add carbon dioxide to the carbon cycle on Earth?

(a) 1 and 4
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 2, 3 and 4
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

[I.A.S (Pre) 2014, I.A.S. (Pre) 2011]


38. The concept of weathering relates to –

(a) Deposition of decomposed material
(b) Change in weather conditions day to day
(c) Natural process leading to the decomposition of rocks
(d) None of the above

[Uttarakhand P.C.S. (Pre) 2006]


39. The Headquarter of World Meteorological Organization is located at –

(a) Geneva
(b) Rome
(c) Sidney
(d) Tokyo

[U.P.P.C.S. (Mains) 2010]


40. The headquarter of U.N.E.P. is located at –

(a) Geneva
(b) Kathmandu
(c) Nairobi
(d) New Delhi

[U.P.P.C.S. (Mains) 2010, U.P.P.S.C. (GIC) 2010]


41. Where was the 4th session of the UN Environment Assembly (UNEA-4) held recently?

(a) Paris-France
(b) Ulaanbaatar-Mongolia
(c) Beijing – China
(d) Nairobi-Kenya
(e) None of the above/More than one of the above

[65th B.P.S.C. (Pre) 2019]


42. What does EPA stand for –

(a) Environment Pollution Agency
(b) Environmental Prohibition Agency
(c) Environment Protection Agency
(d) None of these

[Uttarakhand U.D.A./L.D.A. (Pre) 2003]


43. In which of the following institutes, the Environmental Information System (ENVIS)’s ‘Centre on Population and Environment’ is located?

(a) I.I.T. Kharagpur
(b) I.I.T. New Delhi
(c) I.I.P.S. Mumbai
(d) N.I.R.S. Dehradun

[U.P. P.C.S. (Mains) 2017]


44. N.E.A. Stands for:

(a) National Enquiry Act
(b) National Environment Authority
(c) National Examination Agency
(d) National Event Association

[Chhattisgarh P.C.S. (Pre) 2003]


45. The headquarters of the Green Peace International is located at –

(a) Amsterdam
(b) Canberra
(c) Ottawa
(d) Nagasaki

[U.P.P.C.S. (Mains) 2005]


46. Eco-Mark is given to an Indian product which is –

(a) Pure and unadulterated
(b) Rich in protein
(c) Environment-friendly
(d) Economically viable

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2012]


47. To label environment-friendly consumer products, the Government has introduced:

(a) Agmark
(b) Eco mark
(c) ISI Mark
(d) Watermark

[U.P.P.C.S. (Spl) (Mains) 2004]


48. According to ‘Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) India Index, 2019’ recently released by NITI Aayog, which State holds the first position?

(a) Uttar Pradesh
(b) Bihar
(c) Jharkhand
(d) Kerala

[U.P.B.E.O. (Pre) 2019]


49. Which of the following states is NOT in the list of top five states on the Sustainable Development Goals Index, 2019-20 India?

(a) Gujarat
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(c) Andhra Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu

[U.P.B.E.O. (Pre) 2019]


50. Sustainable agriculture means:

(a) Self-sufficiency
(b) To be able to export and import under WTO norms
(c) To utilize land so that its quality remains intact
(d) To utilize Wasteland for agricultural purposes

[U.P.P.C.S.(Pre) 2001]


51. Which one of the following States in India has recently introduced the ‘Greenhouse Farming’:

(a) Haryana
(b) Punjab
(c) Maharashtra
(d) Uttar Pradesh

[U.P.P.C.S.(Pre) 2003, U.P.P.C.S.(Pre) 2001]


52. Given below are two statements –
Assertion (A) : Natural vegetation is the true index of climate.
Reason (R) : Water-loving plants are found in a moist climate.
In the context of the above, which one of the following is correct?

Codes :
(a) Both statements are true and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(b) Both statements are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(c) (A) is true, but (R) is false.
(d) (A) is false, but (R) is true.

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2009]


53. Urbanization and industrialization are harmful-

(a) For balanced development
(b) Environment and ecology
(c) For biodiversity conservation
(d) For all the above.

[U.P.P.C.S. (Mains) 2002]



1. The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010 was enacted in consonance with which of the following provisions of the Constitution of India?
1. Right to a healthy environment, construed as a part of Right to Life under Article 21.
2. Provision of grants for raising the level of administration in the Scheduled Areas for the welfare of Scheduled Tribes under Article 275(1).
3. Powers and functions of Gram Sabha as mentioned under Article 243
(A). Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) Only 1
(b) 2 and 3
(c) 1 and 3
(d) 1, 2 and 3

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2012]


2. The author of ‘Green Development’ is –

(a) M.J. Bradshaw
(b) M. Nicolson
(c) R.H. Whittaker
(d) W.M. Adams

[U.P.P.C.S (Pre) 2011]


3. What is Rio+20 Conference, often mentioned in the news?

(a) It is the United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development.
(b) It is a Ministerial Meeting of the World Trade Organization.
(c) It is a Conference of the Inter governmental Panel on Climate Change.
(d) It is a Conference of the Member Countries of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2015]


4. In the year 1997, the World Environment Conference was organised in?

(a) Reo-de-Janeiro
(b) Nairobi
(c) Kyoto
(d) New York

[Uttarakhand P.C.S. (Pre) 2016]


5. The Earth Summit + 5 was held in?

(a) 2005
(b) 2000
(c) 1999
(d) 1997

[U.P.P.C.S. (Mains) 2016]


6. Consider the following statements:
1. The Sustainable Development Goals were first proposed in 1972 by a global think tank called the ‘Club of Rome’.
2. The Sustainable Development Goals have to be achieved by 2030.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2016]


7. Who has propounded the concept of ‘Limits to Growth’?

(a) Club of Rome
(c) Brundtland Commission
(d) Agenda 21

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2019]


8. Given below are two statements, one labelled as
Assertion (A) and other as the Reason (R).
Assertion (A) : There is a positive relation between Human Development Index (HDI) and Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) ranking of Indian State.
Reason (R) : The underlying dimension of SDG targets are closely related to education and health aspect.
Select the correct answer using the codes below:

(a) Both (A) and (R) are true and (R) is correct explanation of (A)
(b) Both (A) and (R) are true but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A)
(c) (A) is true but (R) is false
(d) (A) is false but (R) is true

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2019]


9. With reference to the ‘Global Alliance for ClimateSmart Agriculture (GACSA)’, which of the following statement is/are correct?
1. GACSA is an outcome of the Climate Summit held in Paris in 2015.
2. Membership of GACSA does not create any binding obligations.
3. India was instrumental in the creation of GACSA.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 only
(c) 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2 and 3

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2018]


10. The Partnership for Action on Green Economy (PAGE), a UN mechanism to assist countries transition towards a greener and more inclusive economies, emerged at?

(a) The Earth Summit on Sustainable Development 2002, Johannesburg.
(b) The United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development 2012, Rio de Janeiro.
(c) The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 2015, Paris.
(d) The World Sustainable Development Summit 2016, New Delhi.

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2018]


11. With reference to ‘Agenda 21’, sometimes seen in the news, consider the following statements:
1. It is a global action plan for sustainable development.
2. It originated in the World Summit on Sustainable Development held in Johannesburg in 2002.
Which of the following statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2016]


12. Many transplanted seedlings do not grow because:

(a) The new soil does not contain favourable minerals
(b) Most of the root hairs grip the new soil too hard
(c) Most of the root hairs are lost during transplantation
(d) Leaves get damaged during transplantation

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2013]


13. Environmental degradation means –

(a) Overall degradation of environmental attributes.
(b) Adverse changes brought in by human activities.
(c) Ecological imbalance because of ecological diversity.
(d) All the above.

[U.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2006]


14. Which of the following is related to Protection of Ecological Balance?
1. Forest Policy
2. Environment (Protection) Act
3. Industrial Policy
4. Educational Policy
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:

(a) 1 & 2
(b) 2 & 3
(c) 1,2 & 3
(d) All the above

[U.P.P.C.S. (Spl) (Mains) 2004]


15. Concerning ‘Global Environment Facility’, which ofthe following statement/s is/are correct?

(a) It serves as the fi nancial mechanism for ‘Convention on Biological Diversity’ and ‘United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change’
(b) It undertakes scientifi c research on environmental issues at the global level
(c) It is an agency under OECD to facilitate the transfer of technology and funds to underdeveloped countries with a specific aim to protect their environment
(d) Both (a) and (b)

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2014]


16. Plachimada which has been in the news for immense damage to its environment lies in –

(a) Karnataka
(b) Konkan
(c) Kerala
(d) Tamil Nadu

[U.P. Lower Sub. (Spl.) (Pre) 2009]


17. Environment (Protection) Act (EPA) is also known as:

(a) Umbrella Legislation
(b) Chhadi Mubarak
(c) Environment Legislation
(d) Eco Safety Law

[M.P.P.C.S. (Pre) 2013]


18. The Genetic Engineering Appraisal Committee is constituted under the:

(a) Food Safety and Standards Act, 2006
(b) Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration and Protection) Act, 1999
(c) Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
(d) Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2015]


19. With reference to the circumstances in Indian agriculture, the concept of “Conservation Agriculture”
assumes signifi cance. Which of the following fall under the Conservation Agriculture?
1. Avoiding monoculture practices.
2. Adopting minimum tillage.
3. Avoiding the cultivation of plantation crops.
4. Using crop residues to cover the soil surface.
5. Adopting spatial and temporal crop sequencing / crop rotations.
Select the correct answer using the code given below:

(a) 1, 3 and 4
(b) 2, 3, 4 and 5
(c) 2, 4 and 5
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 5

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2018]


20. As a result of their annual survey, the National Geographic Society and an international polling firm Globe Scan gave India top rank in Greendex 2009 score. What is this score?

(a) It is a measure of eff orts made by diff erent countries in adopting technologies for reducing the carbon footprint
(b) It is a measure of environmentally sustainable consumer behaviour in diff erent countries
(c) It is an assessment of programs/schemes undertaken by different countries for improving the conservation of natural resources
(d) It is an index showing the volume of carbon credits sold by different countries

[I.A.S. (Pre) 2010]


21. Which one of the following is the best strategy for environment-friendly sustainable development in Indian agriculture?

(a) Expansion of cultivable land, increased use of superphosphate, urea and eff ective biocides
(b) Wider popularization of high-yielding crop varieties, better aid, more frequent irrigation and increased frequency of aerial span of inorganic fertilizers and pesticides
(c) Mixed cropping, organic manures, nitrogen-fixing plants and pest-resistant crop varieties
(d) Improved farm implements and machinery, use of potent insecticides to minimize post-harvest grain losses and monoculture cropping practices

[I.A.S. (Pre) 1993]


22. Consider the following statements and select the correct answer from the codes given below:
Assertion (A) : India is a case of an over-urbanised country.
Reason (R) : Most of the large cities in India do not have adequate infrastructure.

(a) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) explains (A).
(b) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) does not explain (A).
(c) (A) is true but (R) is false.
(d) (A) is false but (R) is true.

[U.P. P.C.S. (Mains) 2017]


23. The investigator of Natural Farming was-

(a) Masanobu Fukuoka
(b) M.S. Randhawa
(c) M.S. Swaminathan
(d) Norman Borlaug

[Uttarakhand P.C.S. (Pre) 2002]


24. Which country introduced the Green Army for Environment conservation?

(a) Japan
(b) China
(c) Australia
(d) Egypt

[M.P.C.S.(Pre) 2014]


25. During the mid 80’s decade of twentieth century, the negative aspects of development were discussed at
large. Which one among the following was NOT such important?

(a) Degradation of natural resources
(b) Environment pollution
(c) Politics and Development
(d) Displacement and Rehabilitation of masses

[U.P.P.C.S.(Pre) 2020]